Section 8 housing rules for live-in caregivers

Did you know that if a person with physical or cognitive disabilities resides in section 8 funded HUD housing, the law requires the Public Housing Agency (PHA) to allow a necessary home health aide to reside with the tenant? The concept is that the PHA is required to make a reasonable accommodation for the tenant’s needs pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act, to enable the participating tenant to reap full benefit from this federal housing program to enable them to dwell in the community and avoid nursing home placement. The regulation is in surprisingly plain English:

             “24 USC § 982.316 Live-in aide. (a) A family that consists of one or more elderly, near-elderly or disabled persons may request that the PHA approve a live-in aide to reside in the unit and provide necessary supportive services for a family member who is a person with disabilities. The PHA must approve a live-in aide if needed as a reasonable accommodation in accordance with 24 CFR part 8 to make the program accessible to and usable by the family member with a disability. (See § 982.402(b)(6) concerning effect of live-in aide on family unit size.)”

Normally, the income of other occupants of the apartment will be counted in the household income calculation for Section 8. However, if the person resides there because s/he serves as the live-in aide, his/her income is not counted. The criteria for exclusion of that person’s income are in the federal regulations and are basically that (1) the aide’s services are essential to the care and well being of the person(s); (2) the aide is not under a legal obligation to support the person(s) with the disabilities, and (3) the aide would not be living in the unit except to provide the necessary supportive services. The tenant needs to formally request the accommodation by submitting an application to the PHA. The tenant who is applying for this special accommodation would need to provide relevant and necessary medical proofs as to the disability and need for a live-in aide, including physicians’; opinion reports, and evidence concerning the identity of the aide and services to be provided. A sample detailed explanation of the requirements for this application are here, from the Georgia Department of Community Affairs.

The person being proposed as the live-in aide must still be eligible to reside in HUD housing based on other federal criteria, but that is a different topic.

Senior care planning involves looking at the opportunities to enable a person to age in place in his or her preferred environment. There are a wide array of legal questions that are relevant to that planning, including the public benefits that might be available.

Call us for advice about planning for senior care …. 732-382-6070


Wyoming Supreme Court holds that Agent under Power of Attorney had authority to consent to arbitration in nursing home admission contract


It is not uncommon for nursing home admissions contracts to include provisions requiring the resident to consent to binding arbitration of any dispute. In this recent case in Wyoming, the question was the enforceability of an optional arbitration clause. The nursing home admission contract for Aletha Boyd was signed by her Agent under a General Durable Power of Attorney (DPOA) which expressly gave the Agent the actual authority to perform all acts “without limitation” on behalf of the principal (Boyd). In bold print, the contract stated that the resident had the option at that time of whether or not to consent to arbitration. The Agent consented to arbitration at the time of signing. 

Ms. Boyd died within two weeks of admission, allegedly due to negligent nursing care, and her Estate sued the facility, Kindred. Kindred filed a motion to compel arbitration pursuant to the signed admissions contract. The motion was denied by the trial court, but on appeal, the Wyoming Supreme Court reversed and ordered that the case be sent to arbitration. The Court’s rationale was that the authority to consent to arbitration was encompassed within the expressed broad power of the DPOA the arbitration clause was not unconscionable because it was optional, and the fact that the designated arbitrator was no longer in service did not void the contractual provision.  The case is called Kindred Healthcare v. Boyd. 

When selecting a nursing home, the applicant or their duly authorized Agent under POA or legal guardian is often faced with making an urgent decision, reviewing lengthy detailed contracts, and making arrangements for this move under time pressure. Senior care planning requires careful consideration of the rights and obligations of the parties involved, and legal advice is helpful to ensure that the individual and family understand what they will be facing. 

Call us for help  in senior care and estate planning, elder law and nursing home admissions issues …. 732-382-6070


Section 8 housing eligibility terminated due to Intentional falsification of income data

Tenants who reside in Section 8 housing must certify to their household income every year, because the rent is based on the income. A recent case addressed a termination of eligibility for Section 8 due to willful misrepresentation on the application, coupled with the defense that the misrepresentation was due to the tenant’s severe depression and thus required an accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).  In the recent non-precedential Appellate Division decision of T.A. v. Dept. of Community Affairs, the termination of Section 8 eligibility was affirmed.

Ms. T.A. held a Section 8 rental assistance voucher, and her 2 adult daughters lived with her. In her annual recertification, both she and the daughters falsely certified that there was no household income when, in fact, both daughters were employed.  Federal law requires the agency to do appropriate cross-matches to verify the income information which is submitted. It was then learned that the household had earned income. Accordingly, T.A. received a termination notice. She requested a Fair Hearing before an Administrative law judge. The false statements were conceded. However, she claimed she was entitled to an “accommodation” for her debilitating depression. The Judge found that T.A. was well aware that her daughters were working and the statements were willfully false. As a fact matter, the ALJ found that T.A. had never given notice to the Agency that she required any accommodation based on her depression, and further, the ALJ found that such depression was not a valid justification for failure to report the income. The Appellate Division affirmed.

Call us for advice on elder and disability law, senior care planning, benefits and Medicaid appeals …. 732-382-6070

Once appointed, Guardian should inform third parties

The entry of a Judgment appointing a legal Guardian for an incapacitated person may be the end of the court process, but it marks the start of a new process in which the Guardian has many obligations and responsibilities. After all, the Guardian’s primary obligation is to protect the personal and financial interests of the ward. One of these responsibilities is to “let the world know” that the individual has been declared by the Court to lack capacity to govern him/herself [in full or in part] and that another person has been vested by the Court with authority to make major decisions for that person. The Guardian should send a copy of the Judgment or Surrogate Certificates to every person or entity who is delivering services or holding money for the incapacitated person and should direct the necessary communications accordingly. This could include health care providers, financial advisors, banks, retirement fund administrators, etc.

There is a legal concept referred to as “actual notice” and “constructive notice.”  Legal ramifications flow from whether another party had actual notice, constructive notice or no notice. For example, when a Will is admitted to probate, the estate’s Executor/administrator is obligated to give notice of the probate to each person who is an heir at law and each person who is a named beneficiary (and there are court rules and case law specifying how notice can be given if it isn’t certain just where the person resides). N.J.R. 4:80-6. It is the giving of the notice of probate that then triggers a limited time period for a person to file a challenge to the Will. N.J.R. 4:85-1.

A sad case in another State illustrates what can happen if actual notice of the incapacity and guardianship aren’t given. In this case, M.B. had been working and had accumulated an ESOP stock plan benefit. He was declared to be incapacitated, and a guardian (conservator) was appointed. He was working in a grocery store at that time. The guardian gave a copy of the judgment to a person at the store and instructed them to direct-deposit his pay to a certain account. Some time later, M.B. retired at age 56. He requested and received his $78,509 of ESOP stock benefits. The Plan Administrator did not know that a guardian had been appointed over his property, and did not know about the interactions involving the direct-deposit of the paycheck. The plan administrator granted his request and turned over the money to him. He was a vulnerable adult, and unfortunately quickly lost all his money to an internet scammer.


The Guardian asked the company to reinstate the benefit. The request was denied, and suit was filed under ERISA. The federal district court for the Northern District of Georgia granted summary judgment in favor of the company (Publix Markets), and the Eleventh Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed. The court held that “actual knowledge” of M.B.’s incapacity had to have been received by the  Publix Retirement Department. The Guardian’s communication with a Publix employee regarding payroll issues did not satisfy this requirement. Bauman v. Publix Supermarkets Inc.,, 2017 WL 4510322 (11th Cir. Oct. 10, 2017) (unpublished).

Call us for legal advice concerning the duties of a guardian and carrying out the responsibilities of guardianship, and for legal actions such as sale of property that  a guardian may need to file …. 732-382-6070